User:Ilya (usurped)/Phi

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History of Western Philosophy[edit]

Natural philosophy[edit]

Miletus: Thales (water, business story) - Anaximnes - Anaximander (apeiron)

Samos: Pythagoras (religion: pentagram, monad)

Ephesus: Heraclitus (everything is a flux, dialectics)


Empedoclus - Democritus (many worlds,atoms)

Elea:: Xenophanes - Zeno - Parmenides: movement is impossible thus all is one

Sophists : Protagoras


4xx Method, λογος, daimon


4++-350 Academy, heliocentrism, Atlantis

Forms, Good (what's that?); Politeia: (since it is impossible to build such a city in the world, we should strive to build it within ourselves)

The Philosopher[edit]

(3xx) Metaphysics: All men by nature desire to know... Logic: universal only in things, essential versus accidental properties

Hellenistic Philosophy[edit]

Marcus Aurelius


(+2xx) Plotinus (One and emanations)

Other schools[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Carthage: Tertullian (+2+-): soul not preexistent, sinful - awakening, further to Logos, strict moral

Alexandria: Origen (+2++) / On First Principles: complete system; platonic

Hippo: St. Augustine (+4+-) / City of God: Predestination, Free will, Flat earth, two worlds, anti-Semitism

A modern English version of the Nicene Creed (325)[edit]

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, 
maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. 
We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, 
eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, 
true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father. 
Through him all things were made. 
For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven: 
by the power of the Holy Spirit 
he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. 
For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; 
he suffered, died, and was buried. 
On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures; 
he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. 
He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, 
and his kingdom will have no end. 
We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, 
who proceeds from the Father (and the Son). 
With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. 
He has spoken through the Prophets. 
We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. 
We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. 
We look for the resurrection of the dead, 
and the life of the world to come. Amen. 

(Note that, while this version is in the plural, the original Greek is in the first-person singular. )

Proof of the God's Existence[edit]

Scholastics: 1100-1500; ancients, modern references, logic St. Thomas Aquinas (12xx)/ Summa theologica: universal first cause, Just War, monks,

Duns Scotus

Pierre Abélard (+11+-)

Jewish and Islamic[edit]

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Judah Halevi

Moses Ben Maimon


Jabrite - Mutazilite

Cordoba: Averroes (11xx)

Baal Shem-Tov[edit]

Baruch Spinoza[edit]